City of Light: The Story of Fiber Optics
Oxford University Press, 1999 - Science - 316 pages
City of Light tells the story of fiber optics, tracing its transformation from 19th-century parlor trick into the foundation of our global communications network. Written for a broad audience by a journalist who has covered the field for twenty years, the book is a lively account of both the people and the ideas behind this revolutionary technology.
The basic concept underlying fiber optics was first explored in the 1840s when researchers used jets of water to guide light in laboratory demonstrations. The idea caught the public eye decades later when it was used to create stunning illuminated fountains at many of the great Victorian exhibitions. The modern version of fiber optics--using flexible glass fibers to transmit light--was discovered independently five times through the first half of the century, and one of its first key applications was the endoscope, which for the first time allowed physicians to look inside the body without surgery. Endoscopes became practical in 1956 when a college undergraduate discovered how to make solid glass fibers with a glass cladding.
With the invention of the laser, researchers grew interested in optical communications. While Bell Labs and others tried to send laser beams through the atmosphere or hollow light pipes, a small group at Standard Telecommunication Laboratories looked at guiding light by transparent fibers. Led by Charles K. Kao, they proposed the idea of fiber-optic communications and demonstrated that contrary to what many researchers thought glass could be made clear enough to transmit light over great distances. Following these ideas, Corning Glass Works developed the first low-loss glass fibers in 1970.
From this point fiber-optic communications developed rapidly. The first experimental phone links were tested on live telephone traffic in 1977 and within half a dozen years long-distance companies were laying fiber cables for their national backbone systems. In 1988, the first transatlantic fiber-optic cable connected Europe with North America, and now fiber optics are the key element in global communications.
The story continues today as fiber optics spread through the communication grid that connects homes and offices, creating huge information pipelines and replacing copper wires. The book concludes with a look at some of the exciting potential developments of this technology.
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City of light: the story of fiber opticsUser Review - Not Available - Book Verdict
An engineer by training, New Scientist correspondent Hecht explores the history of fiber optics in this interesting and far-reaching study. Beginning in Victorian Europe, his chronology traces the ... Read full review
Building a City of Light
2 Guiding Light and Luminous Fountains 18411890
3 Fibers of Glass
Television and the Legacy of Sword Swallowers 18951940
The Birth of the Clad Optical Fiber 19501955
The Birth of an Industry 19541960
Communicating with Light 18801960
8 The Laser Stimulates the Emission of New Ideas 19601969
The Semiconductor Laser 19621977
13 A Demonstration for the Queen 19701975
14 Three Generations in Five Years 19751983
Covering the Ocean Floor with Glass 19701995
An Elusive Vision
17 Reflections on the City of Light
Cast of Characters
Appendix B A FiberOptic Chronology
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Alec Reeves American Optical amplifiers AT&T beam Bell Labs bits per second British Post Office bundle carry Charles Kao Chown cladding coaxial cables Colladon core Corning Corning's Curtiss decibels decibels per kilometer diode lasers Dyott early electric Electronics engineers fiber cable fiber communications fiber developer fiber optics fiber-optic communications fused silica gallium arsenide glass fibers glass rods graded-index fibers guide light Hansell Heel Hi-OVIS Hicks Hirschowitz Hockham Hopkins idea invention Kapany Karbowiak Keck Kompfner Laboratories Lamm Laser Focus light guiding London looked loss low-loss Maurer meters microwave miles millimeter waveguide million bits Møller Hansen nanometers optical communications optical fibers optical waveguides paper patent phone companies physicist pipes plastic problem pulses radio refractive index Robert scientists semiconductor laser signals single-mode fibers Standard Telecommunication submarine cables switching Telecom telephone interview television temperature total internal reflection transmission transmit tube Valtec wavelength waves wires